Of course, there's a million and one things that go into crafting a great business Facebook page, however I've outlined some of the basics that will help get you started.
Really vital to your Facebook page's layout is the cover image and profile photo. I like using my general watermark-sized logo as the profile photo and a fancier layout on the cover with a nice printed background, perhaps listing some social @ handles and website URLs. In the cover image, you have so much more room to advertise - so use it up!
Some businesses, like SEPHORA will use this space to show off their products offered (and, in the case of SEPHORA--make a strong statement of diversity!). They will also showcase the customer demographic they are attempting to call out to. If the business is a personal brand trying to market a specific individual, there's nothing wrong with using a photo of the individual (or team) as the profile OR cover photo!
Let's realize: SEPHORA uses a very branded approach to their Facebook page. So does Target. They blend their brand logo into every profile design implementing brand recognition. This is a not-so-sneaky way of owning the brand and in all honesty: a brilliant way of shoving it down people's throats. Be conscious about the choices you make when designing your images.
A CLEAR CALL-TO-ACTION
If you didn't notice, both Target and SEPHORA use the "Shop Now" CTA (Call-to-Action) button. There is a variety of CTAs that you can choose from - do choose one! You can have people "Sign Up" for a newsletter, "Learn More" and visit your website, "Donate Now" if you're a non-profit, etc. CTA buttons push the user to that extra step of being converted into a further action (and makes it easy for them to do so). Above is my own business page with a "Book Now" button for leads to book my services.
ENGAGING / RELEVANT / RICH
Once you begin your content calendar for the month, think about some of the current popular culture trends and how you could work them in to your mission. Although it isn't the smartest move for most brands to take a political stance, if you have the right niche it's actually kind of perfect. Above, comedienne Chelsea Handler poses with a Donald Trump piñata making light of the recent American political narrative (and making a strong statement while having fun on her new show!). This engages people who are Chelsea fans and also entertains people who are anti-Trump 2016 (much of whom watch Chelsea's comedy, one can only assume).
FREQUENCY / REGULARITY / VALUE
When thinking about content, it's very important that you post frequently and with regularity. People depend on constant engagement with your brand and are always seeking for the value you can provide to them (not just sharing irrelevant articles and pictures). When you design your posts, think about the value sentiment beneath each and always speak to your customer in the voice they would best understand. Chelsea has this down, posting deliberately at least once or twice a day. Work hard to avoid the quantity over quality conundrum, however.
VOICE : CUSTOMER SEGMENTS
Perfectly demonstrated by Starbucks' Frappuccino page, you must cultivate a voice (or "tone") that matches best with your customer segments--aka who is buying your product and who you are attempting to speak to. Be relatable, fun and suiting to your target demographic. Don't overthink it.
CUSTOMER SERVICE / SOCIAL PROOF
Facebook pages provide you with such a great opportunity to cultivate social proof--social proof can be developed on Facebook by users leaving reviews in the "Reviews" section and sharing your page with their friends, liking it, etc. Although engagement speaks volumes about your brand's impact--amount of likes and shares do count for something. This also provides you with the opportune chance to deliver killer customer service and solve problems on a very public stage. Use this to your advantage. *I just had to include a recent comment about the infamous Starbucks military rumor... it kills me to see people still poorly informed about this issue in April of 2016!